Raynaud’s syndrome represents occasional violation of the peripheral blood circulation. And that violation is a consequence of local arterial spasm of respiratory arteries and skin blood vessels.
The spasm is a response to cold or emotional stress.
Clinically condition manifested by sharply change the color of the skin of the fingers. Spasm of blood vessels is caused by a defect in the central and local mechanisms of regulation of vasomotor reactions.
From Raynaud’s syndrome suffer from 3 to 5 percent of people. The spread of the disease depends on climatic zones. It usually begins in the adolescent or early adulthood. This is more common in women.
Raynaud’s syndrome has two types: primary and secondary.
Primary Raynaud’s syndrome is characterized by spasms of the finger arteries under the influence of cold weather influences, without any signs of damage to the vessels.
And at the secondary monitor combination of Raynaud’s syndrome with certain other diseases.
Commonly affected fingers
Main clinical feature is the consistent change the color of the skin in cold weather. Initially coloration is pale, after a few minutes becomes blue-violet hue. The spasm usually lasts 15-20 minutes and ends with rapidly restore blood flow. In some patients attacks are accompanied by a sensation of frostbite, numbness and pricking fingers.
These symptoms disappear after restoring blood flow.
In the early stage of the disease is only affect one or more fingers,
farther it covers all fingers.
Such spasms may be prepared also in vessels of the skin, for example the end of the nose, mouth, ear shells, and the skin over the knee joints. In some, albeit rare cases, affect the vessels of the tongue.
It is possible to appear pale spots on the lower and upper limbs.
What are the symptoms in the development of Raynaud’s syndrome
Not in all cases there is an “three-phase” change of skin – pale – bruising – redness. In some patients was observed only a single-phase or two-phase change of skin color.
More than 80 percent of patients manifested primary Raynaud’s syndrome. To determine a diagnosis, a number of studies are made on the basis of certain criteria.
These criteria have been developed with a view to clinical and laboratory parameters, as well as from the results of the capillaroscopy on nails.
• The average age of development of Raynaud’s syndrome is 14 years. Only in 27 percent of patients this occurs after age 40.
• Approximately one quarter of patients, Raynaud’s syndrome occurs among close relatives.
• Very often secondary Raynaud’s syndrome is associated with other diseases – scleroderma,tetter eating,connective tissue diseases, hematological disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and others.
• Secondary Raynaud’s syndrome often develops after age 30. It is characterized by more pronounced and painful episodes of spasm, as well as structural changes in the capillaries.